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July Gardening Topics

2023


  • Growing Hops and Grapes in Oklahoma Field Day July 20 - Becky Carroll, Senior Extension Specialist

    Thinking about growing hops or wine grapes in Oklahoma? Wondering what it would take to grow these specialty crops? Or just interested in learning more about horticultural beverages?

     

    Join us on July 20, 2023, at the Cimarron Valley Research Station.

     

    Enter on the north side of the station at 1003 E. 104th Street, Perkins, OK 74059. Check-in will start at 8:30am. We will conclude around 11:30am.

     

    No charge to attend but registration should be completed by July 17, 2023.

     

    In the hop yard, we will discuss topics such as:

    • Cultivar selection
    • Trellis construction
    • Planting
    • First Year Care
    • Harvest & Post Harvest Handling

    In the vineyard, topics will be:

    • Trellis design
    • Planting & Training
    • Disease Management
    • Harvest

    Bring a lawn chair, sunscreen, and be prepared for a warm July morning. We will provide plenty of cold water. There will be plenty of time for questions in the field.

     

    The hops and grapes are growing great this summer!

     
  • Abiotic vs Biotic - Casey Hentges, Associate Extension Specialist and Bailey Lockhart, Extension Assistant

    During the summer months, the normal garden tour often becomes a garden disease and insect identification tour. 

    When looking at a plant you might see symptoms alerting you that something is not right.  These symptoms can include discoloring, curling, spotting, unusual growth, lesions, or for a lack of a better word – oozing. While these symptoms can be concerning, they are also clues as to what is wrong. 

     

    A disease is “a condition of a plant that impairs normal functioning and is typically manifested by distinguishing signs and symptoms.” 

     

    The plant may have signs and symptoms, but what is causing this disease?  The study of plant diseases is called plant pathology.  And fortunately, OSU has the Plant Disease and Insect Diagnostic Lab where plant pathologists can extract samples, look under microscopes, and use tests to determine if there are any pathogens present. 

     

    A pathogen is a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism which can cause a disease.  If a pathogen is found to be present, then you can better know how to handle the situation.  These are known as biotic diseases. 

    The word biotic comes from the Greek work bios, meaning life.  Biotic diseases arise due to living organisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and nematodes. 

     

    What happens if the lab doesn’t find any pathogens?

    Sometimes a plant may seem like it has a disease due to the symptoms, but no pathogens are discovered.  These are referred to as abiotic diseases - meaning to be absent of living organisms.  These are typically a result of environmental conditions such as soil, water, light, nutrients, chemical exposure, or temperature that leads to the stress of the plant.  Abiotic diseases are also known as physiological disorders.

     

    While the most assured way to determine the disease is to identify if and what pathogen might be present, clues can often be found in the landscape as to whether the disease might be abiotic instead of biotic. 

     

    Clue #1: The same symptoms are present on different types of plants. For instance, nutrient deficiencies will often cause the leaves of plants to turn yellow or purple. If this is found on the foliage of all your various vegetable plants, this would be a clue it is an environmental issue, not a pathogen. 

     

    Alternatively, biotic diseases caused by pathogens often are host specific and will only target their preferred hosts.  Keep in mind however, they may like several plants from within the same plant family.  For example, the same problem could be present on both squash and melons because they are in the same family, but if it is also on corn, it likely is an abiotic problem.  This is why crop rotation is so important.

    Clue #2: Abiotic diseases or disorders can often be found in patterns or are uniform in their appearance in the landscape.  This pattern or uniform appearance is due to the area of exposure to the environmental factor that caused the symptoms.  For example, frost damage on bermudagrass can create a unique tiger strip pattern in the fall when the frost begins to settle on the lawn.

    Clue #3: Abiotic diseases are not contagious from one plant to another.  In some cases, a plant will grow out of it or return to normal once the adverse environmental conditions have been removed or corrected.

     

    Clue #4: Think about the weather.  Most biotic diseases are fungi.  And generally speaking, they like moderate temperatures and moist conditions.  If it is extremely hot and dry (aka summer in Oklahoma), it is far more likely to be an environmental problem than a pathogen. 

    In fact, of all the samples submitted to labs across the county, 50-85% of them are abiotic.  Meaning there are far more environmental issues identified in the garden than actual pathogens.

     

    Now to make matters even more confusing – in some cases, abiotic diseases can lead to more severe biotic disease.  Specifically, if the abiotic symptoms are affecting the roots, stems, or leaves, the overall health of the plant may begin to decline depending on the severity.  As the health of the plant declines this creates more opportunity for pathogens to attack, introducing a secondary biotic disease. 

    While there is a plethora of problems that can plague our garden this time of year, determining whether it is biotic or abiotic can help you determine the next steps. 

     
  • Reminder for Collecting Leaf Samples This Month for Fertilizer Plans - Becky Carroll, Senior Extension Specialist

    Although fertilizer applications are usually made in early Spring, July is the critical time to find out what your pecan, blackberry, peach, apple trees and grapevines really need.  Tissue analysis is a reliable management tool used to indicate the fertility needs of several fruit crops. Pecan, blackberry & fruit trees can be monitored by collecting leaf samples while grapevine monitoring requires collection of leaf petioles.

     

    Timing is critical. Sample pecan & tree fruits during July, blackberries after harvest, and grapes at veraison (berry color change).  Pecan & fruit tree leaf samples are collected according to fact sheet HLA-6232 or the instructions.

     

    View the Grapevine petiole sampling procedures . To sample blackberries, after harvest collect fully matured leaves from midway on the primocane (new vegetative shoots). Sample should be about 60 or more leaves. Rinse them and let dry before submitting in a forage bag.

     

    Results will only be as accurate as the sample collected so it is advised to follow the directions. Once the leaves are sampled, they should be submitted to the local county extension office. The cost for tissue analysis is $23. The extension office will send the samples to the OSU Soil, Water, and Forage Lab. The results will be returned to the extension educator and then shared with the grower. If you need assistance with interpreting the results, please contact me.

     

    Fertilizer recommendations will be provided for the following spring application. Frequently growers find out that they are applying unnecessary nutrients and can reduce their costs of fertilizing. The fee for a leaf sample can be an inexpensive tool to determine shortages or excesses before problems develop.

     

     
  • Pecan Crop Thinning Demonstrations Scheduled - Becky Carroll, Senior Extension Specialist

    This season is abuzz with lots of talk of big pecan crops everywhere across the state! That’s good news for Oklahoma Pecan Growers but sometimes we can have too much of a good thing, especially for improved cultivars.

     

    Crop thinning or “green thinning” sounds crazy to some but can be a huge benefit on those years with big crops. Large crop years can mean poor quality. The trees can’t fill out a huge crop properly and can also stress the tree going into the winter. They also may not have enough energy to put into next year’s crop. With crop load management, growers can have a more consistent crop with higher quality pecans.

     

    Come join us to learn more about why we thin the crop, the proper timing, and what equipment is needed. We have two locations set for southern and northern growers. For those in the south, meet on July 27 from 4pm-5:30pm at Hauani Creek Pecan Farm near Madill. For northern growers, join us on August 8 from 4pm-5:30pm at the Cimarron Valley Research Station near Perkins.

     

    Everyone can learn how to check pecan development, assess the crop on the tree, and how to thin the crop properly. Please bring your lawn chair and be prepared for a warm late afternoon. We will provide plenty of water and hopefully a little shade.  No charge to attend the events.

     

    If you have any questions, please email Becky Carroll at becky.carroll@okstate.edu.

     

  • Summer is for Fall Harvest - David Hillock, Consumer Horticulturist

    Summer may not seem like the best time to be thinking about a fall garden, but July through September is the time to start planting several vegetable varieties in order to have a fall harvest. Some tender vegetables that can be started in July and August and harvested before fall frosts include beans, cilantro, sweet corn, cucumber, pumpkin, and summer and winter squash. Be sure to choose varieties that mature early and are disease resistant. Some semi-hardy plants, those that may continue to grow and be harvested after several frosts, include beet, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, garlic, leaf lettuce, parsnip, and radish. 

     

    Climatic conditions of July and August involve high soil temperature, high light intensity, and rapid drying of the soil, resulting in an increase in the problems of obtaining a uniform stand of plants. Achieving a full stand of plants in the heat of summer may require special treatments. This might include shade over rows when seeded and supplemental watering to reduce soil temperature and aid in seed germination.

     

    Insects and weeds can be more prevalent this time of year so check frequently for insect activity and weed growth and use appropriate control measures. For more information on planting a fall garden see OSU Extension Fact Sheet HLA-6009 Fall Gardening.

  • Pecan Growers Meeting Held - Becky Carroll, Senior Extension Specialist

    A great turnout of growers from around the region was seen at the Oklahoma Pecan Growers Convention & Trade Show on June 1-3 at the Tulsa Convention Center. Many thanks to all our speakers and especially the vendors. Thanks to Carla Smith, Jodie Parolini, Brice Callahan, and Brian Jervis for their assistance with the event.

     

    We had beautiful weather for the field day at the Great Buffalo Pecan Farm just a few miles from downtown Tulsa.  Dewey Bartlett, JP & Ann Bennett hosted the group at their orchard in Osage County. We had discussions on cover crops, irrigation, fertilization, as well as marketing and branding.  

     

    The 2022 State Pecan Show winners were announced during the banquet on Friday evening. Top award winners were:

    • Best of Show – Kanza entered by Dick Hoffman of Payne County. The Kanza was 59 nuts per pound and 53.5 percent kernel.
    • Champion Native - Ray Purdy of Kay County won with a native measuring 98.6 pecans per pound and 50.7 percent kernel.
    • Largest Pecan – Mohawk weighing in at 37.8 pecans per pound grown by Scott Mills of Okmulgee County
    • Highest % Kernel - Dick Hoffman, Payne County with his Maramec pecan at 60.3 percent kernel
    • Other special awards presented went to:
    • Herman Hinrichs Award – Kelly Seuhs, Oklahoma State University
    • Grower of the Year – Steve and Susan Haydon Raybourn, Okfuskee County
    • Grove of the Year – Great Buffalo Pecan Farm, Osage County

    A special award was presented to Dr. Tom Coon for his support of the Oklahoma pecan industry.  

     

    Photos of the events can be found on the @Oklahomapecans Facebook page.

     

    The 2024 OPGA meeting will be held in Ardmore on May 30-June 1.

     

    Kelly Seuhs, Associate Extension Specialist in Entomology and Plant Pathology was awarded the Herman Hinrichs award at the OPGA annual meeting.

  • July Irrigation - David Hillock, Consumer Horticulturist

    Though some areas of the state have received ample amounts of rainfall so far, now that we are officially in summer the weather can turn hotter and drier. Adequate soil moisture is essential for good plant growth. A healthy plant is composed of 75-90% water, which is used for the plant's vital functions, including photosynthesis, support (rigidity), and transportation of nutrients and sugars to various parts of the plant.

     

    There are several options for applying water to plants. These include: a watering can, a garden hose with a breaker nozzle or spray attachment for containers, small gardens or individual plants and portable lawn sprinklers, a perforated plastic soaker hose, drip or trickle irrigation, or an automatic drip system for lawns and gardens.

     

    Your careful use of irrigation techniques will help local streams and will ultimately benefit larger bodies of water in your surrounding area by reducing fertilizer and pesticide run-off and by conserving water.

     

    Some Basic Techniques and Principles for Watering

    Adjust the flow or rate of water application to about one-half inch per hour to avoid causing run-off. To determine the rate for a sprinkler, place small tin cans at various places within the sprinkler's reach and check the level of water in the cans at 15-minute intervals.

     

    When using the oscillating type of lawn sprinkler, place the sprinkler on a platform higher than the crop to prevent water from being diverted by plant leaves. Try to keep the watering pattern even by frequently moving the sprinkler and overlapping about one half of each pattern. 

     

    Do not sprinkle foliage in the evening. Wet foliage overnight may encourage disease. Morning watering is preferred. 

     

    Perforated plastic hoses or soaker hoses should be placed with holes down (if there are holes), along one side of the crop row or underneath mulch. Water will slowly soak into the soil.

     

    Frequent, light watering will only encourage shallow rooting, causing plants to suffer more quickly during drought periods, especially if mulches are not used. On the other hand, too much water, especially in poorly drained soils, can be as damaging to plant growth as too little water.

     

    Your lawn can use an inch or more of water per week in hot, dry weather, The lawn should be watered when the soil begins to dry out, but before the grass wilts. loss of resilience can be observed; footprints will make a long-lasting imprint instead of bouncing right back. 

     

    Critical watering periods for selected vegetables are:

    • Asparagus: Spear production, fern development
    • Broccoli, Cabbage, Cauliflower: Head development
    • Beans, Peas: Pod filling
    • Carrot: Seed emergence, root development
    • Corn: Silking, tasseling, ear development
    • Eggplant, Tomato: Flowering, fruiting
    • Cucumber, Melon: Flowering, fruit development
    • Lettuce: Head development; moisture should be constant
  • Squash Bug Management - David Hillock, Consumer Horticulturist

    When it comes to vegetable pests in Oklahoma, there is nothing more loathed than the dreaded squash bug, Anasa tristis (DeGeer). Below is information about squash bug summarized from OCES Circular E-918: Major Horticultural and Household Insects of Oklahoma.

     

    Description

    Adults are brownish black to dark ashy black and measure about 5/8 inch long. The body is compact and flat across the back with the wings overlapping toward the rear. They give off a disagreeable odor when handled or crushed. Eggs are somewhat diamond- or spindle-shaped and white when first deposited, gradually turning yellowish brown and finally dark bronze. They are laid in loose masses, mostly on the underside of leaves. Newly hatched nymphs are pale green. As they grow, they develop a gray body color with black legs. Nymphs are smaller than adults and do not have wings, but the last two nymphal stages have noticeable wing pads.

     

    Life Cycle

    Squash bugs overwinter as unmated adults under plant debris or other suitable shelter. They emerge in April or May, search for suitable hosts, and mate. Eggs are laid over a period of several weeks, often in the angles formed by leaf veins, and hatch one to two weeks later. Five nymphal stages grow for four to six weeks before new adults are produced. There are three or four generations per year, but due to the extended egg-laying period all stages are present for most of the season. Nymphs present in late fall are killed by freezing temperatures and adults seek overwintering sites.

     

    Hosts

    All cucurbit vine crops are subject to squash bug infestation. The bugs prefer squash, pumpkin, watermelon, cantaloupe, and cucumber, in that order. Hubbard, winter, and marrow squash are often heavily infested.

     

    Damage

    Both nymphs and adults feed by sucking juices from plants. The overwintered adults can cause extensive damage as they appear just after plants have emerged. Feeding can greatly stress and even kill young seedlings. Once the plants attain greater size, they can withstand a moderate number of squash bugs. Nymphs tend to feed in clusters at first but will disperse as they become older. All stages prefer the leaves but will feed on all above-ground plant parts. They may congregate and feed on unripened fruits, especially late in the season. Squash bugs can increase in abundance quite rapidly and can cause plants to wilt due to feeding in large numbers. When combined with hot, dry weather, feeding stress on plants is greatly increased. However, squash bugs will not kill plants “overnight.” If plants wilt and die overnight, one should suspect another causal agent, such as bacterial wilt.

     

    Inspection and Control

    Good cultural practices help prevent serious squash bug damage. Proper fertilization of vines produces a vigorous crop that is better able to withstand insect attack. Squash varieties such as Butternut, Royal Acorn, and Sweet Cheese are less susceptible to infestation than pumpkin or summer squash. Removal and destruction of crop debris after harvest eliminates some of the insects, their late-season hosts, and some potential overwintering sites. In small gardens, adult bugs and leaves with egg masses can be handpicked and destroyed. The bugs can also be trapped by placing small boards near the host vines. Squash bugs gather under the boards at night and can be collected and destroyed the next morning.

     

    Seedlings should be inspected regularly, and treatment applied as soon as adult squash bugs enter the field in spring. If these first insects can be controlled, the late-season population can be greatly reduced due to the presence of fewer eggs. Once plants are established, they should be inspected frequently to detect adult bugs and eggs. Adults spend most of their time within the plant canopy around the stems or on the underside of leaves. They often seek shelter under leaves in contact with the ground. Eggs also are found mostly on the underside of leaves. The key to control is to prevent development of large populations, so chemical treatments should be applied to kill the maximum number of small nymphs.

     

    A study was conducted at Ohio State University in 2005 to compare the effectiveness of several insecticides against squash bug. Treatments consisted of biorational, or environmentally friendly, and conventional insecticides and were targeted against young nymphs, old nymphs, and adults. Interestingly, certain insecticides were more effective on different life stages of squash bug. In other words, the type of product recommended for control varies with the size and developmental stage of the target population. The results of this study are summarized in the table below—trade names for common homeowner products containing these active ingredients are listed after the table.

    Squash bug life stage Most effective Moderately effective Least effective
    Young nymphs Spinosad

    Carbaryl

    Pyrethrins

    Permethrin

     
    Old nymphs Spinosad Permethrin

    Pyrethrins

    Carbaryl

    Adults

    Lambda-cyhalothrin Cyfluthrin

    Pyrethrins

    Esfenvalerate

    Spinosad

    Permethrin Carbaryl

    Carbaryl – Sevin

    Cyfluthrin – Bayer Advanced Vegetable & Garden Insect Spray

    Esfenvalerate – Ortho Bug B Gon Max Garden & Landscape Insect Killer

    Lambda-cyhalothrin ***

    Permethrin – Bayer Advanced Vegetable & Garden Insect Dust; Bonide Eight Insect Control Garden Dust

    Pyrethrins – Bonide Tomato & Vegetable Ready to Use; Ferti-lome Quick-Kill Home, Garden & Pet Spray Ready to Use

    Spinosad – Ferti-lome Borer, Bagworm, Leafminer & Tent Caterpillar Spray

    • *** There are no registered homeowner products labeled for squash bug control that contain this active ingredient.
  • Bagworms - David Hillock, Consumer Horticulturist

    Once again, bagworms are popping up here and there. They are commonly found on juniper and arborvitae species, which seems to be some of their favorite plants, though they can be found on several other species as well. I even found several on a small potted bald cypress on my back patio the other day.  

    Bagworm on juniper

     

    Bagworms are a species of clear winged moths. The adult male develops into the moth and the female are wingless, have no functional legs, eyes or antennae, are almost maggot-like in appearance and will never leave the bag. The bags are quite tiny right now but will continue to grow as the larvae add fragments of the host plant foliage while they feed. The larvae remain in the bag, moving the bag across the twig as they feed and grow.

     

    Now is the time to control them. Hand picking and destroying each little bag is the most effective way to manage them if you can reach them. If they are out of reach, several pesticides are labeled for control and are quite effective at this very young stage of the insects’ life. If you wait until they get more mature the insecticides used will be less effective.

     

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (B.t.), a bacterial insecticide, is reported to provide good control of young bagworms. Also effective are products that contain the active ingredient Spinosad. These insecticides must be ingested by the caterpillars to achieve kill, so be patient as it will take some time to see results. Repeat applications may be needed later in the summer to keep susceptible plants free of bagworms.

     

    Late in the season, large, older larvae are not as susceptible to B.t. and spinosad. Thus, bagworms must be sprayed with broad-spectrum, contact insecticides. Homeowners can look for products containing the active ingredients carbaryl (Sevin) or malathion that are labeled for caterpillar control on ornamental plants. An arborist certified with the International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) should be hired to combat bagworm infestations on large trees with tall canopies. Contact your county extension office for assistance with locating an ISA-certified arborist in your area.

     

    Remember, now is the time to control them by either hand picking or applying an insecticide while the worms are small. If not controlled, bagworms can completely defoliate a plant, which usually kills a host plant like juniper. Broadleaf plants are not killed but may be weakened leaving them more susceptible to attack from other pests.

  • Read the label "Before" you Purchase a Pesticide! - David Hillock, Consumer Horticulturist

    Pesticides include such products as herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, bactericides, rodenticides, etc.; basically, anything labeled to control a pest is a pesticide. Each category consists of many different active ingredients, concentrations, and modes of action, each designed to target specific pests or sometimes a broad range of related pests. Therefore, it is very important to identify the type of pest you want to control, the site in which it is to be used, and then select the pesticide best designed to control the target pest.

     

    With all the different products available, consumer labeling can be confusing. For example, Ortho has several products labeled Bug-b-gone or Weed-b-gone, but each one may have different chemicals in them, different sites in which they may be used, and pests they control. Another example is Roundup. Not all Roundup products contain just glyphosate anymore, which has been the main active ingredient for many years, and still is, instead, some of the products produced by Monsanto have other ingredients as well. The products are still labeled as Roundup, but those with added ingredients have an addition to the title, such as “Extended Control, Weed & Grass Killer, Plus Weed Preventer” or “Poison Ivy & Tough Brush Killer Plus.”

     

    The problem consumers run into is they see “Roundup” on the label, think it is just the traditional weed killer with glyphosate in it, purchase it, and apply it to an area it was not intended for without reading the label!

     

    I know of two cases in which the Roundup Extended Control, Weed & Grass Killer, Plus Weed Preventer was accidentally used instead of the traditional form. One was a friend who wanted to kill an area in her turf to install a vegetable bed, and the other used it in an area they wanted to plant trees and shrubs. The result in both cases, they were unable to plant anything in the area for about four months. The reason, because the second ingredient in this product provides up to four months weed control and can damage un-established plant material.

     

    Another common situation we see frequently is the use of agricultural products used in the home landscape and garden. Folks in rural areas have easy access to products labeled for control of pests in pastures and other agricultural areas that may have the same ingredient as home consumer products, but they are often formulated different and have different rates listed on the label. Using these products in the home landscape often leads to dead or damaged landscape plants. Using a label on a different site than it is registered for is illegal and can lead to plant damage.

     

    The moral of the story – Read the Label BEFORE you purchase any pesticide and follow label directions to the T!

     

    Please note I do not have anything against any of the products mentioned or any other manufacturer or product, nor is this an endorsement for those mentioned, but it is extremely important for the consumer to do some research and read the label before they purchase a pesticide to avoid situations such as the one experienced by my friend. Eventually she was able to plant her garden, but it was not until the following year that it was safe to plant again.

  • Diagnosing Problems in the Landscape and Garden - David Hillock, Consumer Horticulturist

    Throughout the growing season several problems can arise in the landscape and garden. The County Extension Centers throughout the state as well as your local garden professionals are a good source in helping diagnose the problem. The County Educators and garden professionals are trained to look for and ask certain questions to help narrow in on the problem. Knowing some of the things they will be looking for will help you possibly diagnose the problem yourself or be better prepared with the information they will need to solve the dilemma. Here are some of those areas to consider.

     

    1. Keep an open mind. Do not jump to conclusions.
    2. Avoid assigning “Guilt by Association.” The insect, animal, or disease observed may not be the actual cause of the problem or symptom.
    3. Take a thorough history: weather extremes, site alterations, fertilizer and pesticide use, cultural    practices, etc. Once mature trees (especially pines and oaks) begin to decline, there is often no way to reverse the process.
    4. The symptom may indicate a problem in a different part of the plant. Example, brown leaves may be the result of a root problem or trunk or stem damage.
    5. Know what the healthy plant should look like.
    6. At least one half of all observed landscape problems are not caused by insects or diseases. Try to eliminate other causes first.
    7. A particular problem may be caused by several factors.
    8. There is a great variation in the expected lifespan of landscape plants. All plants go through periods of growth, maturity, and decline. Plants grown in urban locations generally have shorter lives.
    9. Many pests and diseases are plant specific. Symptoms affecting more than one plant species may indicate cultural and environmental problems.

    There are many other areas to consider and questions that may need to be asked. Be prepared to answer questions to the best of your ability. Remember, we can never ask enough questions. The more thorough you are the better the diagnosis will be!

  • We are Responsible for Safe Use of Pesticides - David Hillock, Consumer Horticulturist

    In every case of human death from pesticides, the cause has been accidental misuse. Children lead the list of victims of pesticide poisoning because people fail to take the most elementary precautions with pesticides around the home. Whenever a small child is poisoned accidentally, an older person has done something wrong. The pesticide user is responsible for seeing that family, pets, and wildlife are not exposed. 

     

    To avoid accidents and misuse, follow these simple rules: 

    Pest Identification

    Identify your pest problem before attempting to manage it. Observe the pest. It may not be causing any damage; it could even be beneficial. If you cannot identify it, find someone who can. The local OSU Extension Center can assist in identification of the pest and selection of management measures. Once the pest has been identified, selection can be made of a pesticide product for its management, if needed. 

    Label

    Read the label. This is the first rule of safety in using any pesticide. Read the label of the pesticide product and follow the directions and precautions printed on it every time it is in use. Make sure the intended crop, animal, or place of use is listed on the label. 

    READ THE LABEL BEFORE spraying or dusting vegetables or fruits to determine how long to wait before harvest. This is called the pre-harvest interval. 

     

    Observe the cautions, especially those that read “Keep out of reach of children,” and those for environmental protection. 

    Use

    • Pesticides are only one option in pest control strategies. When using a pesticide, make sure it is the best management option.
    • It is best to rotate pesticides with different active ingredients and modes of action to avoid developing pest populations with pesticide resistance.
    • When using a pesticide, be sure to select the best pesticide for best management and use at the proper time and conditions.
    • Use the exact amount specified by the label. Too much is illegal, wasteful, environmentally hazardous, and financially irresponsible. Overuse can stain surfaces and fabrics or injure humans, plants, or pets. Overdosage does not generally lead to better control, and too little may not work, causing repeat applications. Too little pesticide also can cause resistant pest populations to develop over time. Applying less than the label rate is a violation of the Oklahoma laws and regulations.
    • Do not make more than the recommended number of applications within the time stated on the label. If this is not followed, the extra applications could lead to increased residues on food, in soil and water, and could prove toxic to humans and wildlife.
    • Mix or prepare dusts or sprays outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. When opening a pesticide container, face away from, and to one side of, the cap or lid.
    • Do not mix different pesticides unless allowed by label direction. Use special containers for mixing pesticides. Never use food or beverage containers.
    • Keep children and pets away when mixing or applying pesticides.
    • Remove aquariums, birds, cats, dogs, and other pets, as well as their food and water bowls before spraying and dusting. Do not contaminate water gardens or streams.
    • All insecticide and many pesticide labels do not allow applications when bees are present, or plants are in bloom. Follow pesticide label directions and take care not to spray or kill bees. The same care should be taken to protect beneficial insects and fungi.
    • When applying pesticides (including foggers) in the home, cover food and utensils. Check the pesticide label for protection of pets including birds, fish, amphibians, and reptiles.
    • Keep pets and people out of treated gardens, lawns and rooms until sprays have dried or dusts have settled—longer if the product label tells you to. When treating pets or their quarters, use pesticides labeled for that purpose.
    • Never leave pesticides where children and irresponsible people can reach them. Place them out of reach as soon as the sprays and dusts have been prepared.
    • Always keep pesticides in their original containers. Make sure they are tightly closed and plainly labeled. Never put a pesticide in an empty food or drink container of any kind. This has been a major cause of deaths from pesticides.
    • Do not apply dust or spray on windy days. When there is a breeze, apply the dust or spray from the windward side of the area being treated, so the breeze will blow the pesticide away from the person applying it.
    • Always make sure there is a gap between the water source and tank water level (air gap) when filling any type of sprayer to avoid siphoning pesticide back into a water supply.
    • Do not allow pesticides to drift onto adjoining property.
    • Do not apply pesticides near wells, cisterns, or any other water sources (such as storm drains or streets) into which they may run or be washed by rain. Do not clean application equipment, empty unwanted pesticide, or dispose of empty containers near these areas. Never pour pesticides or rinse sprayers down bathtub or sink drains. Disconnect hose-in sprayers immediately after turning off the water to prevent possible water contamination.
  • Pecan Growers Host Annual Meeting in Ardmore - Becky Carroll, Associate Extension Specialist

    Over 200 pecan growers from all over Oklahoma and many surrounding states attended the 2022 Oklahoma Pecan Growers Convention and Trade Show on June 9-11 in Ardmore. Many thanks to all our speakers and especially vendors. Thanks to Keegan Varner, Tayler Denman, Erin Hubbard and Carla Smith for their assistance with the event.

     

    The Field Day at Hauani Creek Pecans near Madill was well attended and a great chance to tour the Savage Family pecan orchard. Topics included tree thinning, scab prevention, irrigation and how to plant a pecan tree.

     

    The 2021 State Pecan Show winners were announced during the banquet on Friday evening. Top award winners were:

    • Best of Show - Ray Purdy, Kay County exhibited a Pawnee with 59% kernel & 42.3 nuts/lb
    • Champion Native - Marilyn Shrick, Tillman County sample was 56.6 % kernel & 56.8 nuts/lb
    • Largest Pecan - Dick Hoffman, Payne County exhibited Pawnee with 36.6 nuts/lb
    • Highest % Kernel - Jim Lavendusky, Tulsa County exhibited a Forkert with 62.9% kernel

     

    Other special awards presented went to:

    • Herman Hinrichs Award – Niels Maness, Oklahoma State University
    • Grower of the Year – Jimmy Carroll, Cimarron Valley Research Station
    • Grove of the Year – Flying G Ranch, Sapulpa, OK

     

    A special award was presented to OPGA President Bob Knight for all the work he has done to procure grant funds to promote Oklahoma native pecans and other grant projects.

     

    Photos of the events can be found on the @Oklahomapecans Facebook page.

 

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